For further information about the causes, symptoms, and treatment of depression, please refer to the following books, pamphlets, and useful links to other web sites.

In the News

Chronobiology Comes of Age by Wirz-Ju

The Power of Wake: Can Depression be Treated Effectively Without Medication or Therapy by David Hellerestein, MD

Heal Your Brain by David Hellerestein, MD

6 Things You Need to Know About Psychedelics, David Hellerstein, MD on Oprah Daily

Antidepressants Don't Work the Way Many People Think, David Hellerstein, MD on The New York Times

Psychedelic ‘Magic Mushroom’ Drug May Ease Some Depression, David Hellerstein, MD on US News and World Report


Persistent depressive disorder 

Persistent depressive disorder is a category that includes various forms of chronic depression in which depressive symptoms are present 'more days than not' over at least a 2-year period (1 year in children and adolescents). David J. Hellerstein, Professor of Clinical Psychiatry, Columbia University Medical Center, gives a clinical overview of the condition.

David Hellerstein, MD: Psychedelic Treatments for Psychiatric Disorders

Research on psilocybin, LSD, and other hallucinogens as psychiatric treatments are in their renaissance, transitioning from banned and illegal to potentially useful in changing life for the better in some patients. 


Heal Your Brain: How the New Neuropsychiatry Can Help You Go from Better to Well
David J. Hellerstein, M.D.
Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore MD, 2011
How new insights from neuroscience can lead to better outcomes of treatment for mood and anxiety disorders.

The Bipolar Survival Guide, 3rd Edition
David J. Miklowitz, M.D.
Guilford Press, New York, NY, 2019

The Noonday Demon
Andrew Solomon, PhD
Scribner, New York, NY, 2002


Depression (NIH Publication No. 04-3561)
Margaret Strock
National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD, 2000
This 20-page booklet describes symptoms, causes, and treatments of depression and offers tips on getting help and coping

Journal Articles

  • Goodwin, G. M., Aaronson, S. T., Alvarez, O., ... Hellerstein D. J., et al. Single-dose psilocybin for a treatment-resistant episode of major depression: Impact on patient-reported depression severity, anxiety, function, and quality of life [published online ahead of print, 2023 Feb 4]. J Affect Disord. 2023;327:120-127.
  • Goodwin G. M. , Aaronson S. T. , Alvarez O., ... Hellerstein D. J., Kishon, R., McElhiney, M., Nielson, E., et al. Single-Dose Psilocybin for a Treatment-Resistant Episode of Major Depression. N Engl J Med. 2022;387(18):1637-1648.
  • Bender, D, Hellerstein D. J. Assessing the risk-benefit profile of classical psychedelics: a clinical review of second-wave psychedelic research. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2022;239(6):1907-1932. doi:10.1007/s00213-021-06049-6
  • Agosti, V., Hellerstein, D. J., & Stewart, J. W. (2009, November/December). Does personality disorder decrease the likelihood of remission in early-onset chronic depression? Comprehensive Psychiatry, 50(6), 491-495.
  • Bansal R., Hellerstein, D. J., & Peterson B.S. Evidence for neuroplastic compensation in the cerebral cortex of persons with depressive illness. Molecular Psychiatry 2017;22:
  • Bruder G.E., Keilp J., Alvarenga J., Alschuler D., Abraham K., Hellerstein, D. J., Stewart, J. W., & McGrath P.J. Psychomotor slowing as a differential predictor of clinical response to antidepressants. Biological Psychiatry 2013;73(9):160S.
  • Bruder GE, Alvarenga JE, Alschuler D, Abraham K, Keilp JG, Hellerstein, D. J.,Stewart, J. W. & McGrath PJ. Neurocognitive predictors of antidepressant clinical response. Journal of Affective Disorders 2014;166:108-114.
  • Gerra M.L., Marchesi C., Amat J.A., Blier P., Hellerstein D.J.,  & Stewart, J. W. Does negative affectivity predict differential responsivity to SSRI vs. non-SSRI? Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 2014;75:e939-e944. .
  • Hellerstein, D. J., Agosti, V., Bosi, M., & Black, S. R. (2010, December). Impairment in psychosocial functioning associated with dysthymic disorder in the NESARC study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 127(1-3), 84-88.
  • Hellerstein, D. J., Batchelder, S., Hyler, S., Arnaout, B., Corpuz, V., Coram, L., & Weiss, G. (2008, April). Aripiprazole as an adjunctive treatment for refractory unipolar depression. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry, 32(3), 744-750.
  • Hellerstein, D. J., Batchelder, S., Miozzo, R., Kreditor, D., Hyler, S., Gangure, D., & Clark, J. (2004, May). Citalopram in the treatment of dysthymic disorder. International Clinical Psychopharmacology, 19(3), 143-148.
  • Hellerstein, D. J., Kocsis, J. H., Chapman, D., Stewart, J. W., & Harrison, W. (2000, September). Double-blind comparison of sertaline, imipramine, and placebo in the treatment of dysthymia: Effects on personality. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 157(9), 1436-1444.
  • Hellerstein, D. J., Skodol, A. E., Petkova, E., Xie, H., Markowitz, J. C., Yen, S., Grilo, C. (2010, September/October). The impact of comorbid dysthymic disorder on outcome in personality disorder. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 51(5), 449-457.
  • Hellerstein, D. J., Erickson G., Stewart J.W., McGrath P.J., Hunnicutt-Ferguson K., Reynolds S.K., O’Shea D., Chen Y., Withers A., & Wang Y. Behavioral activation therapy for return to work in medication-responsive chronic depression with persistent psychosocial dysfunction.Comprehensive Psychiatry 2015;57:140-147.
  • Hellerstein, D. J. & Flaxer J.A. Vilazodone for the treatment of major depressive disorder: An evidence-based review of its place in therapy. Core Evidence 2015;10:1-14.
  • Hellerstein, D. J., Hunnicutt-Ferguson K., Stewart J.W., McGrath P.J., Keller S., Peterson B.S., & Chen Y.  Do social functioning and symptoms improve with continuation antidepressant treatment of persistent depressive disorder? An observational study. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 50(6), 491-495. J of Affective Disorders 2017; 210:258-264.
  • Lan M.J., Rubin-Falcone H., Motiwala F., Stewart J.W., Hellerstein, D. J., Mann J.J., Chen Y., & McGrath P.J. White matter tract integrity is associated with antidepressant response to lurasidone in bipolar depression. Bipolar Disorders 2017;19:444-449.
  • Liebowitz, M. R., Quitkin, F. M., Stewart, J. W., McGrath, P. J., Harrison, W. M., Markowitz, J. S., & Rabkin, J. G. (1988, February). Antidepressant specificity in atypical depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 45(2), 129-137.
  • McElhiney, M. C., Rabkin, J. G., Gordon, P. H., Goetz, R., & Mitsumoto, H. (2009, October). Prevalence of fatigue and depression in ALS patients and change over time. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 80(10), 1146-1149.
  • McElhiney, M., Rabkin, J., Van Gorp, W., & Rabkin, R. (2010, June). Modafinil effects on cognitive function in HIV+ patients treated for fatigue: A placebo controlled study. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 32(5), 474-480.
  • Posner J., Hellerstein D.J., Klahr K., Stewart J.W., McGrath P.J., & Peterson B.S. Antidepressants normalize the default mode network in patients with dysthymia. JAMA Psychiatry 2013;70(4):373-382.
  • Rabkin, J. G., McElhiney, M. C., Moran, P., Acree, M., & Folkman, S. (2009, January). Depression, distress and positive mood in late-stage cancer: A longitudinal study. Psycho-Oncology, 18(1), 79-86.
  • Rabkin, J. G., McElhiney, M. C., Rabkin, R., & Ferrando, S. J. (2004, December). Modafinil treatment for fatigue in HIV+ patients: A pilot study. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 65(12), 1688-1695.
  • Rabkin, J. G., Wagner, G. J., McElhiney, M. C., Rabkin, R., & Lin, S. H. (2004, August). Testosterone versus fluoxetine for depression and fatigue in HIV/AIDS: A placebo-controlled trial. Journal of Clinical sychopharmacology, 24(4), 379-385.
  • Rubin-Falcone H., Zanderigo F., Thapa-Chhetry B., Lan M.,  Miller J., Sublette M.E., Oquendo M., Hellerstein, D. J., McGrath P.J., Stewart J.W., & Mann J.J.  Pattern Recognition Of Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Based Gray Matter Volume Measurements Classifies Bipolar Disorder And Major Depressive Disorder. J of Affective Disorder 2018;227:498-505.
  • Stewart, J. W., Deliyannides, D. A., & McGrath, P. J. (2008, November). Is duloxetine effective treatment for depression with atypical features? International Clinical Psychoparmacology, 23(6), 333-336.
  • Stewart, J. W., McGrath, P. J., Quitkin, F. M., & Klein, D. F. (2007, February). Atypical depression: Current status and relevance to melancholia. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 115, 58-71.
  • Stewart J.W., McGrath P.J., Blondeau C., Deliyannides D.A., Hellerstein D.J., Norris S., Amat J., Pilowski D., Tessier P.,  Laberge L., Chen Y., Withers A., Bergeron R., & Blier P.  Combination antidepressant therapy for major depressive disorder: speed and probability of remission. Journal of Psychiatric Research 2014;52:7-14.

Useful Links

  • Depression Central
    A clearinghouse for information on all types of depressive disorders and their treatment.
  • Mood Disorders Support Group
    The web site for the Mood Disorders Support Group of New York City, a non-profit, self-help organization that serves individuals with depression and bipolar disorder and their families and friends. This site offers a comprehensive list of links regarding mood disorders.
  • National Alliance for the Mentally Ill (NAMI)
    The web site for the National Alliance for the Mentally Ill (NAMI), a non-profit, grassroots, self-help, support and advocacy organization of consumers, families, and friends of people with mental illnesses. This site offers many useful links to information on depressive disorders.
  • National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)
    The lead Federal agency for research on mental and behavioral disorders offers information about the signs, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of depression and offers tips on how to locate mental health services in your area.
  • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Research Program, Anxiety Disorders Clinic, New York State Psychiatric Institute and Columbia University
    This web site is devoted to education about Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and provides information on how to volunteer to participate in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder studies at the New York State Psychiatric Institute.
  • Social Anxiety Clinic, New York State Psychiatric Institute, and Columbia University
    This web site is devoted to education about Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) and provides information on how to volunteer to participate in a Social Anxiety treatment study at the New York State Psychiatric Institute. Visitors can take an online Social Anxiety Self-Assessment that measures the severity of their social concerns.
  • Center for the Study of Trauma & Resilience, New York State Psychiatric Institute and Columbia University
    This web site offers information on our research program that includes specialized treatment for 9/11-related PTSD at no cost and an intensive resilience-building group program offered at September Space in Lower Manhattan. In addition, the web site is dedicated to education about Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and grief-related problems and describes other treatment and research efforts underway at the Center.